Iconic Brides: 40+ Celebrities Who Wowed In Fairy Tale Wedding Gowns

By Isabel K

We all love tuning into celebrity weddings. We love to see the pre-wedding jitters, the preparations, and the official wedding pictures. It’s all thrilling to watch, and we’ve had several celebrity weddings that we won’t forget anytime soon.

Most celebrity weddings cost thousands, if not millions—with the dresses taking a massive chunk of the budget because a world-renowned fashion house or designer designed it. Celebrities go all out for their special day and kit themselves out in the fanciest outfits, from slim-fitting and modern looks to timeless classic veils and black wedding dresses. And they spare no expense to look their best.

If you want a refresher on who wore what, here is a list of some of the most iconic celebrity wedding dresses. 

1. Paris Hilton 

 This list wouldn’t be complete without adding the Hilton heiress and reality tv queen, Paris Hilton. Paris didn’t just have one beautiful wedding dress; she had six of them! Yes. Six. But what did you expect from her wedding to Carter Reum that lasted the entire weekend?

Image source: @Parishilton on Instagram

Three of the wedding dresses were designed by Oscar de la Renta. Alice and Olivia Marchesa, Galia Lahav, and Pamella Roland designed the other stunning wedding gowns. Our favorite was this beating pink gown specifically designed for her 2021 fairground-themed wedding ceremony.

2. Nicola Peltz-Beckham

On April 9th,2022, Brooklyn Beckham and Nicola Peltz said their “I Do’s” in a beautiful ceremony at her family home. She was dressed in a beautiful custom white gown designed by Valentino Haute Couture. Instead of embroidery, they added handmade gloves with French lace.

Image source:@Nicolannepeltzbeckham on Instagram

Nicola Peltz said it was the best couture experience of her life. After fittings and dozens of conversations with Valentino’s creative director, Pierpaolo Piccioli’s team throughout the year, Nicola got her dream wedding dress. The enchanting train was a work of art and sat over the gown like a painting.

3. Ciara

Ciara is living her fairy tale life married to Russell Wilson as they raise their kids together. The couple tied the knot in 2016 and haven’t looked back since. For the special ceremony, the singer trusted Peter Dundas to create her one-of-a-kind wedding gown.

Image source: @ciara on Instagram

The beautiful Cavalli dress featured a corset at the front with long boho sleeves. The 13-foot-long dress was almost too big for the church! After multiple fittings from New York to Milan, the team brought it all together, and she looked stunning.

4. Sophie Turner

The Game of Thrones actress Sophie Turner had a magical dress made for her wedding day. She walked down the aisle to marry Jonas Brothers band member Joe Jonas in a custom Louis Vuitton dress designed by creative director Nicolas Ghesquiere.

Image source: @Sophiet on Instagram

The elaborate dress took numerous man-hours due to the embroidery that needed to be done by hand on the 14 meters of tulle. This was their official wedding ceremony because the couple had previously gotten hitched in Vegas. For that exciting event, Sophie wore a beautiful white film jumpsuit designed by the Ukrainian label BEVZA.

5. Katie Holmes

Many people today may have forgotten that Katie Holmes was once married to movie star Tom Cruise. She chose designer Armani to create her elegant wedding dress—and she was not disappointed. She walked down the aisle in a white gown with a long, layered veil to match.

Image source: Splash News

Katie Holmes’s wedding dress is said to have cost $50,000. We’re glad she didn’t spend more than that, considering how her marriage to the Scientologist Tom Cruise ended. After less than six years of marriage, the gorgeous couple called it quits.

6. Priyanka Chopra

Priyanka Chopra had one of the longest and most beautiful wedding ceremonies we have ever seen. In line with the Indian wedding traditions, Priyanka and Jonas’s Brother Band member Nick Jonas had several pre-wedding events, and the bride looked stunning in each and every one of them.

Image source: @ralphlauren on Instagram

For the bridal shower, the actress wore a Marchesa gown with feathers at the bottom, and for the bachelorette party, she donned a short ivory dress with a train from Georges Chakra. For the main event, she wore a custom Ralph Lauren wedding dress with over 2 million mother-of-pearl sequins that took our breath away.

7. Victoria Beckham

Victoria Beckham is the second Beckham on this list with a beautiful wedding dress. For her wedding day to football star David Beckham, the former Spice Girls member wore two outfits for the ceremony. Her first dress was a strapless and form-fitting ivory wedding dress.

Image source: @Davidbeckham on Instagram

Vera Wang designed the first dress. However, for their reception, the couple changed into something more casual. David and Victoria wore matching outfits (a purple dress and suit) as they cut into their wedding cake. Their wedding was the perfect way to round out the decade.

8. Gywneth Paltrow

For her 2018 wedding, actress Gywneth Paltrow wore a custom Valentino white gown. The wedding was attended by their closest friends and family, with only 70 guests in attendance at the ceremony set in the Hamptons. The star was ecstatic in the lace gown as she walked down the aisle.

Image source:@gwynethpaltrowit on Instagram

In her previous marriage, Gywneth eloped and didn’t get the chance to wear a wedding dress and have the world gush over how beautiful it was. Like other stars who trusted Valentino with this important milestone, she collaborated with designer Pierpaolo Piccolo. The stunning gown with cap sleeves was finished with a simple tulle veil.

9. Amal Clooney

Amal Clooney had a whirlwind romance with heartthrob movie star George Clooney. After a proposal at home, Clooney finally relinquished his bachelor title during a ceremony in September 2014. Oscar de la Renta designed Amal’s gown for the special occasion.

Image source: Annie Leibovitz / Vogue

The human rights lawyer walked down the aisle surrounded by other stars in Venice. The off-shoulder gown wasn’t her only attire for her special day. For the official ceremony, she wore a stylish ivory jumpsuit and a wide white hat to match.

10. Keira Knightley

The famous actress, Keira Knightley, decided to wear what felt most comfortable during her special day in 2013. Keira opted for a more sustainable option by re-wearing a dress from her closet to her wedding to Klaxons musician James Righton. 

Image source: SpreadX17online

For the wedding, Keira Knightley wore a beautiful Chanel dress. She paired the short off-shoulder dress with blush flats and a cropped Chanel jacket. With a flower crown for her hair, she was ready to take the first step into married life. This was only one of the three times she wore this beautiful white dress.

11. Salma Hayek

Salma Hayek married her now husband Francois-Henri Pinault in a secret ceremony on Valentine’s Day in Paris in 2009. The intimate Parisian wedding was not their only ceremony. The couple also had another wedding event in April of the same year. 

Image source: @salmahayek on Instagram

The beautiful dress is rumored to cost $460,823. For her beautiful dress, she went with her favorite designer, Balenciaga, for the full skirt and embellished bodice. The masked ball wedding party was filled with friends and family to celebrate the new union.

12. Serena Williams 

Serena Williams is one of the greatest athletes of our generation. So, it wasn’t a surprise when millionaire Alexis Ohanian decided to marry this beautiful and talented woman. For their November 2017 wedding, Serena donned a multi-million dollar gown to walk down the aisle to say, “I do.”

Image source: @alexisohanian on Instagram

This isn’t surprising, considering the tennis player is a millionaire herself. For the special occasion, she wore a strapless ball gown by Alexander McQueen to the Disney-themed wedding in New Orleans. The dress is reported to cost a whopping $2,7 million!

13. Celine Dion

Celine Dion got married to Rene Angelil in 1994. Although the two had a 26-year age gap, the singer reminisces that they were in love until his last day. The wedding took place in Montreal, and Celine Dion wore the most beautiful and eye-catching wedding dress we have ever seen.

Image source: OnTopOf

For the occasion, she wore a silk princess-style wedding dress with long sleeves and a fitted waist. Her train was 20 feet long and elegant, with crystals and lace all over. The train is said to have required over 1000 hours of work to be ready for the final day.

14. Gwen Stefani

We’ve seen Gwen Stefani on our screens for decades. Before taking a seat as one of the judges on The Voice, she had a long successful music career. We were all delighted when news of her marriage to country singer Blake Shelton hit the tabloids. Although this was her second wedding, the singer never looked happier.

Image source:@ GwenStefani on Instagram

For her wedding to the country singer, she wore a fun skater mini dress with white boots. The hip, off-shoulder dress was designed by Vera Wang. She paired it with fishnet tights and added a shoulder-length veil with a big white bow to finish her punk princess look.

15. Mandy Moore

Mandy Moore has been in the limelight for decades, and she has always taken risks when it comes to her fashion and style. So, it wasn’t a surprise when she disregarded all the traditional wedding rules for her 2018 wedding to musician Taylor Goldsmith.

Image source: MandyMooreMM on Instagram

The This is Us star tied the knot in her backyard in Los Angeles dressed in a pink wedding dress. Rodarte designed the ruffled pink dress. It featured a custom tulle inspired by the 60s and 70s romantic style with an embroidered veil and sleeveless gown.

16. Kelly Clarkson

Singing sensation and now tv-host Kelly Clarkson wore a boho-style wedding dress to her wedding to Brandon Blackstock. The wedding took place in October 2013. Although the couple is no longer together, we are still smitten by the long ruffled sleeves on her dress. 

Image source:@kellyclarkson on Twitter

The singer wore a super romantic gown designed by Temperley. She added a beautiful headpiece from Maria Elena to match her long-sleeve lacy dress. If the pictures she shared on social media are anything to go by, she stole the show that night. Stunning!

17. Sofia Vergara

Sofia Vergara and Joe Manganiello married in a beautiful Palm beach, Florida ceremony. Close celebrity friends and family attended the November wedding. The beautiful bride shocked everybody by going for a more traditional look instead of the usual form-fitting dresses she dons on red carpets.

Image source:@sofiavergara on Instagram

The actress wore a custom Mark Zunino knee-length dress for the pre-wedding cocktail. The top was lace with tons of beading and a white skirt. On the big day, she wore a custom Zuhair Murad couture gown with a long gorgeous train.

18. Yoko Ono 

Yoko Ono and John Lennon are an iconic couple that tied the knot in a beautiful ceremony. The couple was constantly in the tabloids and news due to their efforts to promote peace worldwide. For the special day, though, she didn’t go for an over-the-top gown like many expected.

Image source: beachgal/ Pinterest

Due to her unconventional style, Yoko Ono wore a laid-back white mini-dress. It had elbow-length sleeves and a ruffled skirt which she matched with a floppy sun hat and dark sunglasses. She also didn’t go for the usual heels on this memorable day. Instead, she wore knee-length socks and white tennis shoes.

19. Lily Collins

Emily in Paris actress Lily Collins got married in September 2021 to director Charlie McDowell in Denton Hot springs, Colorado. By sharing photos on Instagram, Collins gave the world a closer look into her wedding. Judging by the pictures, it was indeed a fairytale come true.

Image source: @lilyjcollins on Instagram

Ralph Lauren designed Collins’ wedding dress. The custom Calais-Caudry lace gown was from one of his collections. The form-fitting dress features a turtleneck with lace all over. And true to Lily’s unique style, she paired it with a hood and cape. It’s said the entire look took over 200 hours to create.

20. Hailey Bieber

Hailey Bieber and Justin Beiber married in a beautiful ceremony attended by the who’s who of Hollywood. For the special day, Hailey went with the late designer Virgil Abloh. The model and socialite wanted a dress that matched her chic yet fun style. And Virgil didn’t disappoint.

Image source: @hayleybeiber on Instagram

Her breathtaking dress was off the shoulder with long sleeves covered in lace. The form-fitting cathedral-length gown matched perfectly with the long train and shoulder-length veil. This off-white dress also had a plunging back that was hard to take your eyes away from.

21. Chrissy Teigan 

Model and TV show host Chrissy Teigan wore three dresses to her wedding to musician John Legend. She chose Vera Wang to design all three dresses with inspiration from Wang’s spring 2013 collection. She wore a strapless white and ivory custom dress for the ceremony with a wide cut and a sweetheart neckline.

Image source: @chrissyteigan on Instagram

For her dinner, she wore a different dress. Teigen donned a light and airy form-fitting dress with nude undergarments. For her reception dress, she chose to go with the color red. It was a strapless deep red dress with an optional neckpiece, but the bride decided to go without, and it worked beautifully.

22. Kaley Cuoco

The Big Bang Theory star walked down the aisle to marry professional equestrian Karl Cook in a breathtaking gown. Reem Acra created a beautiful lace dress. A team of almost ten seamstresses was needed to bring this stunning creation to life.

Image source: @mrtankcook on Instagram

The lace dress and accompanying beaded cape used 50 yards of silk chiffon. The chiffon was decorated with handmade floral designs. However, one outfit wasn’t enough for this stunner. After the wedding ceremony, the actress changed into a lace jumpsuit for the rest of the night. 

23. Kourtney Kardashian

Travis Barker and Kourtney Kardashians’ wedding was one of the most talked about events of 2022—we didn’t expect anything less from a Kardashian wedding. After a beautiful beach proposal in 2021, Travis and Kourtney eloped to Las Vegas to tie the knot. Although it wasn’t the official big day, it still got people’s attention.

Image source: @KourtneyKardashian on Instagram

Aside from the courthouse ceremony, Travis and Kourtney also had a big wedding in May at the L’Olivette villa owned by Dolce and Gabbana in Portofino, Italy. And while some fans didn’t love her dress choice, Kourtney loved the mini wedding dress inspired by Italian lingerie and paired it with a long floral veil.

24. Britney Spears

Although 2022 has been a liberating year for Britney Spears, one of her favorite moments was her wedding to fiancé Sam Asghari. In an event filled with family, friends, and many celebrities, Britney walked down the aisle for the second time in an off-shoulder white gown.

Image source: @Channel8 on Instagram

The beautiful dress is rumored to cost close to $20,000, complete with a gigantic 10-foot train and a simple veil over her long blonde curls. With a white chocker to match, Britney was a walking beauty in her custom-made Versace gown for her June wedding.

25. Gabrielle Union

Actress and author Gabrielle Union walked down the aisle in a strapless Dennis Basso gown. The elegant dress featured a beaded bodice to accentuate her waist, a sweetheart neckline, and a flowing veil to complete the look. Her husband, Dwayne Wade, was awe-struck by his beautiful bride.

Image source: @Gabrielleunion on Instagram

Gabrielle had shopped for this dress months before and settled on this crystal and pearl embellished ball gown in 2014. She added a pair of diamond earrings, swept her hair up, and added some curls to round out the look. With a bouquet of white roses, she was ready to say, “I do.”

26. Nikki Reed

For her wedding day, Twilight star Nikki Reed wore a lace fishtail gown to wed fellow vampire Ian Somerhalder. Claire Pettibone designed her custom wedding dress that featured long sheer sleeves with a low plunging back to contrast the high neckline.

Image source: @ nikkireed on Instagram

Nikki got Ian involved with the designing and fitting of the dress, knowing that he would still be surprised by the small details like the low back on the big day. Their California wedding was perfect, with Ian wearing a white suit to match her long white gown.

27. Avril Lavigne

When Avril Lavigne walked down the aisle for her second wedding, she decided to try something different. She opted for a black wedding dress designed by Monique Lhuillier. Black wedding dresses were all the rage in 2013, with Vera Wang having an entire collection of black wedding dresses during that era.

Image source: Monique Lhuillier on Instagram

Avril tied the knot with fellow singer Nickelback lead Chad Kroeger in a beautiful ceremony. She matched the long black gown with black roses. Chad, sticking to the theme, was dressed in black too. She wanted the dress to be gothic but fitting.

28. Kim Kardashian

The second Kardashian sister on this list is Kim Kardashian. Although Kim and her ex-husband Kanye West are now separated, they were happy when they got married, surrounded by their friends and family. For her wedding, she wore a lace dress with a sheer back designed by Givenchy.

Image source: @Kimkardashian on Instagram

The beautiful gown that showcased her hourglass figure was designed by Riccardo Tisci at Givenchy and is said to have cost $500 000. Unfortunately, this is now only a beautiful memory for this once-loving couple. At least their children have pictures of their parents’ love.

29. Ariana Grande

Former Disney star and pop sensation Ariana Grande tied the knot with long-time boyfriend and fiancé Dalton Gomez. For the May wedding, Ariana wore a simple column-style white gown to her chilled backyard home wedding to her real estate agent fiance.

Image source: @Arianagrande on Instagram

The custom wedding dress by Vera Wang cost $150,000. The strapless dress with an empire waist and a plunging back fit the singer like a glove. The shoulder-length bubble veil with a bow on top finished off her look and was true to her quintessential “cutesy” style. 

30. Kandi Burruss

Whether you know Kandi from her days as part of the girl band Xcape or as part of the reality show The Real Housewives of Atlanta, you know she is going to go all out for her wedding. For her wedding to producer Todd Tucker, she opted for a dress designed by Reco Chapple.

Image source: bravotv

She wore a form-fitting dress with Swarovski crystals hand-women into the dress. According to Bravotv, Kandi’s wedding, with a Coming to America theme, cost close to $400,000. With a 12-foot-long train, it’s rumored that Kandi’s dress cost close to $20,000 to make. To finish her look, she added 5-inch Christian Louboutin stilettos.

31. Issa Rae

For most Insecure fans, Issa Rae’s wedding came as quite a shock because most people didn’t even know she was engaged. The actress and producer walked down the aisle to marry long-time boyfriend Louis Diane in a romantic wedding ceremony in the South of France.

Image source: Laurenfair

Issa wore a strapless wedding gown with a sweetheart neckline for the big day. The chapel-length ball gown was designed by celebrity favorite Vera Wang, who added a Lilly lace veil to complete the look. For the reception, she wore another custom Vera Wang design made of Italian silk with a fun tulle skirt to match.

32. Anne Hathaway

The Princess Diaries star, Anne Hathaway, walked down the aisle in 2012 to marry Adam Shulman. The outdoor wedding took place in Big Sur, California, with friends and family in attendance. For the special occasion, the actress wore a custom-made Valentino gown.

Image source: Splash News

The off-shoulder sheer white gown with a pink tinge had detailed lace and embroidery that perfectly matched their outdoor setting. She paired the ball gown with a full-length and dramatic veil. To complete the look, she accessorized it with a vintage floral headpiece.

33. Beyoncé 

Beyoncé and Jay Z got married in an intimate wedding ceremony on April 4th, 2008. This wedding was so secretive that we only got to see details and pictures 3 1/2 years later. Beyoncé has one of the most beautiful celebrity wedding dresses of all time.

Image source: @Beyoncé on Instagram

The designer? Her mother. Yes. Ms. Tina Knowles is responsible for designing the beautiful gown. To renew her wedding vows, the singer wore a beautiful dress from Galia Lahav’s Victorian infinity collection. And because she is Beyoncé, she looked stunning in both gowns.

34. Portia de Rossi

Portia de Rossi and tv show host Ellen DeGeneres got married in 2008, and it was a wedding to remember. Not only because they were two famous Hollywood stars but because they got married as soon as same-sex marriage was legalized. However, what we remember most is Portia’s mesmerizing wedding dress.

Image source: @ellendegeneres on Instagram

And for a good reason. Portia and Ellen were both dressed in white for the special day. Portia wore a custom blush pink tulle gown. It had a halter top design and a flirty wide skirt. The wedding dress was designed by Zac Posen and cost between $5000 and $10,000.

35. Ashlee Simpson

Another celebrity who opted for a boho chick wedding dress is Ashlee Simpson. For her wedding to Evan Ross, Ashlee wore an ivory corded lace crop top with sleeves and a matching high-low skirt to finish the look. She added a custom silk tulle veil that complemented her long train.

Image source: @ ashleesimpsonross on Instagram

Katharine Polk designed the beautiful and fun wedding dress. The couple was involved in designing the look, and they wanted the gown to exude their personal style. The designer delivered—it was the ideal dress to match their boho-inspired wedding ceremony.

36. Julianne Hough

As a judge on Dancing With The Stars, Julianne Hough is no stranger to wearing designer gowns. However, for her special day, the dancer and actress wanted something unique. So, she turned to trusted friends Marchesa design duo Karen Craig and Georgina Chapman.

Image source: Instagram/@juleshough

For her wedding to Brooks Laich, she wore a strapless gown made using 20 yards of silk with 37 buttons for the back. She paired this dress with a tulle Marchesa veil and white satin shoes from Schultz. She was a dashing bride.

37. Allison Williams

Allison Williams is no stranger to glitz and glamor. She has worn many dresses and gowns for her red carpet premiers and events. The Girls actress flew all the way to New York for her secret and intimate wedding ceremony to entrepreneur and CollegeHumor cofounder Ricky Veen.

Image source: @aw on Instagram

On the special day, she wore a floor-length white dress to walk down the aisle. The A-line dress was flattering, with sheer detailing at the neckline and sleeves. She paired the dress with a matching belt to show off her enviable waist. The dress worked well with the natural setting they chose for their nuptials.

38. Solange Knowles

Solange Knowles is a celebrated singer known for her unique style and outlook on life. When she got married in November 2014, she let it all shine with her amazing cool white jumpsuit. Wedding tradition was the last thing on her mind as she walked down the aisle to marry Alan Ferguson.

Image source: FameFlynet

While the two are no longer together, her outfit is still one of the most beautiful wedding dresses on this list. Stephane Rolland designed this fabulous jumpsuit. She even asked her guests to wear white to the wedding ceremony. We know most brides wouldn’t dare do this, but she did!

39. Zoe Kravitz

Like every celebrity child, Zoe Kravitz has been raised with cameras and paparazzi watching her every move. But to our surprise, her wedding to fellow actor Karl Glusman was very hush-hush. The wedding took place at her father, Lenny Kravitz’s home, with many celebrity guests in attendance.

Image source: @zoekravitz on Instagram

The talented Alexander Wang designed her dress. It was a tea-length white dress with a drop waist and a scoop neck. True to her love for unconventional and Bohemian style, she wore a crotchet dress with a white bra and shorts for the rehearsal dinner.

40. Rose Leslie

For her big day, Rose Leslie wore an Elie Saab gown that is rumored to cost close to $20,000. The Good Fight and Game of Thrones actress married fellow actor Kit Harrington in a beautiful June wedding surrounded by friends and family in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

Image source: Splash News

The beautiful dress featured long sheer sleeves, a belted waist, and a dramatic floor-length skirt. The lace overlay matched perfectly with her delicate flower crown as she walked into the church for her nuptials. It isn’t a dress you can easily forget once you see it.

41. Hilary Duff

If you were born in the 90s, then you, too, might understand why our just hearts melt at the sight of Hilary Duff in a wedding gown. The Lizzie McGuire actress looked absolutely radiant when she wed musician Matthew Koma.

Image source: @hilaryduff on Instagram

Duff wore a custom-made gown by Jenny Packham. Not only was the gown modern and edgy with its structured shoulders, but it also had a few sentimental touches. Duff had her and Koma’s initials embroidered onto the dress. Her children’s initials were also stitched onto the stunning gown.

42. Ellie Goulding

It seems like the “Love Me Like You Do” singer finally found true love. Ellie Goulding married her art dealer husband, Casper Jopling, in a ceremony fit for a royal. It was just as well because some of the royal family was in attendance.

Image source: @elliegoulding on Instagram

The singer had five dresses for her big day, but perhaps the most spectacular of them all was the one she wore to her reception. It was a custom Chloé dress designed by Natacha Ramsay-Levi. The dress was painstakingly hand-beaded and took 640 hours to craft!

43. Miranda Kerr

What does a supermodel wear when marrying the founder of Snapchat? Dior, of course! Miranda Kerr, a former Victoria’s Secret model, decided to don something more demure for her big day. She opted for a high-neck, satin gown with a full skirt.

Image credit: @mirandakerr on Instagram

Australian-born Kerr stated that her main sources of inspiration for the gown were Audrey Hepburn and Grace Kelly. If you know anything about fashion, then you have probably seen the iconic wedding gown worn by Kelly. Kerr’s dress is a stunning ode to that classic dress.

44. Karlie Kloss

Another supermodel who opted for Dior for their nuptials is Karlie Kloss. Kloss married her long-time boyfriend, Josh Kushner, in an intimate affair. The dress was designed by Maria Grazia Chiuri, the first female creative director at Dior (she also designed Miranda Kerr’s dress).

Image Credit: @karliekloss on Instagram

The dreamy dress had a lace overlay and lace sleeves with scalloped trim. It was soft and romantic, and the small belt at the waist accentuated Kloss’ waist perfectly. The paired-back hair and makeup were the perfect choice for such a regal dress.

45. Kate Moss

Kate Moss has worn many a wedding dress in her time. Since the tender age of 14, the model has been strutting the runway in countless haute couture gowns. So, when it was time to choose who would make the dress for her special day, she went to a designer she had always loved—John Galliano.

Image source: Mario Testino/ Vogue

At the time, Galliano had just been removed as the creative director of Dior. He credits Kate Moss for giving him the courage to create again. And what he created was simply a masterpiece. The 1920s-inspired gown was almost iridescent as it flowed down Moss’ trim shape. It was truly one of a kind.